Oct 1861 ~ Henry's Thoughts Wander

Naval blockades of Charleston Harbor intensify
~ Henry thinks about a girl ~

In this post, I touch on two topics:
  • Military disparity: The big difference, apparent in the autumn of 1861, between the “navies” of the Union and the Confederacy. I put “navies” in quotes because the Confederacy didn’t have one.
  • In the Human Interest department: Miss Fannie Smith.
Much was written, even at the time, about the two sides’ obvious difference in naval capability. The observant Gabriel Manigault laid it out.

From The Autobiography of Gabriel Manigault, 1897, housed at the University of  North Carolina Libraries. 
Pages 327-328
It was known then [October, 1861] that an expedition was being fitted out in the various northern navy yards for some point on the southern coast, and it was definitely ascertained before it sailed that Port Royal was its destination. … The apathy of the government at Richmond in the matter of providing efficient gunboats for the protection of the coast was then for the first time apparent, and it was mortifying to think that such a gallant officer as [Confederate] Commodore Tatnall, who had distinguished himself in the US Navy, should have nothing better in the way of a fleet to resist the attack of [Union flag officer] Dupont than a few flimsy side-wheel river steamers. With these, when the hostile fleet first appeared in the offing, he steamed out and made a show of attack; but the whole affair was too ridiculous to be seriously considered, and it was said that when the Yankee naval officers first saw this little improvised fleet approaching they concluded that they were coming out to surrender.

Harpers Weekly sketch, May 18, 1861: CSS Lady Davis, one of the four flimsy river steamers in the Confederate's little improvised fleet.

Oct 1861 ~ Manigault on Sentry Duty

One more vignette from Gabriel Manigault
~ The sleeping Picket, the Corporal, and the Captain ~

On Sullivans Island in October, 1861, life was easy. True, Captain Trenholm was trying to instill military discipline into the mindset of his troops, and the “fun and merriment” of Morris Island, as Gabriel Manigault lamented, was gone - but the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen were well-fed on fresh oysters and fish, and they had plenty of time to engage in pleasant activities. Maybe the lack of an enemy, the lack of danger, dulled the senses, even of the sentries.

Sketch of a Confederate picket, made by Alfred Waud during the Civil War (LOC). This sentry displays the correct attitude. 

The following passage, written years later by Gabriel Manigault in his autobiography, recalled Captain Trenholm’s earnest efforts to put discipline on a right footing in his company. Manigault also recalled the tedium of guard duty. The passage interests me because it involves a corporal in the RMR, who, though unnamed, COULD have been our Henry Jeffers. (In his own letters, Henry was cautious, often omitting sensitive information. There is no letter from him about this story. I know only that Henry was a corporal of the RMR, at this time and this place.)

Sept-Oct 1861 ~ Henry on Sullivans Island

Soldiering on Sullivans Island
~ The Cavalry horses were parked below the beach houses ~

The Rutledge Mounted Riflemen learned through the newspapers, in mid-September 1861, of their order to report for active duty on Sullivans Island, SC. There, they were stationed in houses along the beach (their horses were kept below the raised living space).

Stereograph shows a military outpost on Sullivan's Island, c 1861. LOC.

Was Henry Jeffers (now a corporal) with Lt. Edward Barnwell’s detachment that first spent two weeks on Morris Island? Or was he already on Sullivans Island when the detachment joined the company there? I don’t know the answer to that for sure. If he were on Morris Island, he would never have written home to his Baptist folks about the boisterous times - betting on horse races, playing cards, and drinking whiskey all day long. His first letter to his mother, undated, was written a week after he arrived on Sullivans Island.

Sullivans Island, photo by Brian Stansberry, on Wikimedia

Sept 1861 ~ Manigault's Tales of Morris Island

The RMR Detachment tasked with keeping a watch on the Union sloop Vandalia
~ Good Times on Morris Island ~

The Rutledge Mounted Riflemen were ordered into active service on September 19th, 1861. While most of the company reported to Captain Trenholm on Sullivans Island, a detachment of about a dozen men under Lieutenant Edward H. Barnwell were sent straight to Morris Island for two weeks.

Morris Island beach, military camp after Union capture in 1863. LOC.

Morris Island treetops c 1863. LOC.

Captain William L. Trenholm of the RMR

A good leader? Or not sufficiently blue-blooded?
~ The measure of the man ~

William Lee Trenhom is the man credited with organizing the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen after secession, and shepherding the troop through most of the war as its captain. He was not, however, the first captain. The earliest Muster Roll showed Cleland K. Huger as captain, and William L. Trenholm as 1st lieutenant. After the quiet summer of 1861, there were changes in the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen: Huger left to lead an artillery company, and William Trenholm was elected as captain of the RMR.

By June, 1863, the company had grown large enough to warrant division into two companies. The newer unit elected J. J. Magee as Captain, and Henry Jeffers as 1st Lieutenant. The two companies remained as a squadron, all under Captain Trenholm’s leadership.

Trenholm was the anchor and guiding light for his companies throughout the war.  Even after the disappointment of being passed over for promotion, and after receiving serious wounds in Virginia, he provided his men a sense of stability and leadership, as well evidenced in the letters of Henry Jeffers and the diary of William G. Hinson (1st Lieutenant in the RMR under Jeffers' captaincy). I have looked at the Service Records for Captain Trenholm on Fold3 - and can see that in addition to leading in battle, he did the tedious documentation and work needed to keep the company and their horses supplied and fed.

William Lee Trenholm c 1885. Source: Thos. W. Herringshaw, The Biographical Review of Prominent Men and Women of the Day (Chicago: Elliott and Beezley, 1889)

Jun-Oct 1861 ~ Gabriel Manigault's Skills

Great primary resource: Autobiography of Gabriel Manigault
The Rutledge Mounted Riflemen drill in the sword exercise

A very useful source for me as I learn about the defense of the South Carolina coast in 1861-1862, is the manuscript Autobiography of Gabriel Manigault, kept at the UNC University Libraries. The document, handwritten during the years 1887-1897, includes detailed accounts of Manigault’s service in the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen and the Charleston Light Dragoons. 

In an earlier post on this blog I referenced Gabriel Manigault (Post # 16 ~ Thoughts and Motives), when I quoted his explanation for what he thought an inarguable reason to maintain slavery: money. In this post I show one of his hobbies being used to fill the hours of the RMR during the fall of 1861. 

Manigault’s autobiography highlights interpersonal and inter-class relations among the South Carolina coastal militias, and is an invaluable primary source. At first I regretted that Gabriel (and his younger brother Alfred) served in the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen for only the first year of the war. If he had stayed in the RMR, rather than switching over to the Dragoons, his descriptive writings could have answered so many questions. But it’s all good - I have enjoyed studying the parallel yet very different trajectories of the two companies.

(An aside: I hope someone will write a comparative study someday. There are interesting divergences between the two units: the Charleston Light Dragoons maintained their gentlemanly exclusivity while the ranks of the Rutledge Rifles grew by inclusion of “rougher” men. Said Manigault: “...we joined [the Dragoons] because most of our friends were there...sons of low country planters… while [the RMR] was recruited from entirely different material - men whom none of us knew.” The best book about the Dragoons is Sons of Privilege: the Charleston Light Dragoons in the Civil War, by Eric Emerson, 2005.)

Gabriel Manigault came to mind when I spotted the following newspaper notice posted for the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen during the fall of 1861:

Aug-Sep 1861 ~ Worries about Cape Hatteras and Beaufort NC

Growing awareness that the South needed a navy
~ Stalled shipping will cause problems ~

South Carolinians worried a lot, in newspapers and in correspondence, about invasion along their coast. They knew that what happened at Cape Hatteras, on the southern coast of North Carolina, could happen in their own port cities. It was a bad omen. 
From The Diary of Miss Emma Holmes, 1861-1866, pages 85-86:
August 29 [1861]
A telegraph from Wilmington [North Carolina] today announces that the fleet of ten or fifteen war vessels lately gathered off Fort Monroe had sailed South and were heading for Cape Hatteras. Thereupon the Moultrie Guards and a corps of Artillery were immediately ordered down to Morris Island “to make assurance doubly sure” and prevent any barges from landing …
August 31 [1861]
The Northern fleet, carrying 100 guns & 4000 men, commanded by Gen. B[enjamin] F. Butler, on Tuesday attacked Fort Hatteras, a mud fort, with several guns & garrisoned by 853 men. The firing was returned with spirit

Aug 29 1861 ~ The Capture of Fort Hatteras

1861-08-31 Richmond Dispatch
~ The quick surrender of Cape Hatteras ~

From: Richmond Dispatch, Richmond, Virginia, 31 Aug 1861, Page 3

The city was considerably excited yesterday by a report that the expedition which sailed southward from Fortress Monroe on Monday last, under 

Aug 28-29 1861 ~ Bombardment of Cape Hatteras, NC

1861-08-31 Raleigh Register
~ Bombardment of Cape Hatteras, Surrender of troops ~

From: The Raleigh Register, Raleigh, North Carolina, 31 Aug 1861,  Page 3 (detail). LOC.



Aug 29 1861 ~ Rumor of Yankees off the NC Coast

1861-08-29 Fayetteville Semi-Weekly Observer
Yankee vessels appear off our coast ~

In late August, 1861, people along the coasts of both Carolinas felt nervous - anticipating an attack by the Federals, and aware that the north had far more naval power than the south. Newspapers began to fret. The report below, dated August 29th, was actually behind the times. The battle for Cape Hatteras was already underway, having commenced the day before.

From: Fayetteville Semi-Weekly Observer, Fayetteville, North Carolina, 29 Aug 1861,  Page 3. LOC.


Summer 1861 ~ The Scene in Charleston

The Rutledge Mounted Riflemen kept in martial readiness
~ Showing promise of gallant deeds ~

We will leave Thomas and the Hampton Legion Cavalry in Virginia for the moment, settling into camps in Prince William County (which really is a beautiful place), and turn our attention back to Brother Henry in South Carolina

After seeing Thomas off for Virginia on 29 June 1861, from the train depot in Columbia, Henry returned to Charleston to take up his work in the office of Cothran, Jeffers & Co., Factors and Commission Merchants. Henry was still a member of the Rutledge Mounted Riflemen, the militia company he and Tommie had joined in December, 1860. The RMR members had dispersed from their company's camp in May, 1861, to await further developments in the coastal areas of the state. But their readiness was kept up by frequent drills and team-building events, all announced through the Charleston newspapers.

A shooting contest was announced for June 10th - the prize: a Company Saddle.

From The Charleston Daily Courier, Charleston, SC, 05 June 1861, Page 1. LOC.


Sept 7th 1861 ~ The Scene in Richmond

Richmond is thronged with visitors and soldiers
~ The men act very independent ~
~ The Yankee prisoners are scamps ~

September, 1861: At this point in reading the Jeffers brothers’ CW letters, we know:
  • Thomas recovered from the measles, left Brentsville, and rejoined his company near the Potomac
  • Brother Henry returned to work at his father’s company in Charleston (Cothran, Jeffers & Co., Factors and Commission Merchants). The Rutledge Mounted Riflemen continued to drill, but had not yet regrouped in a camp.
  • Spann, still a teenager, continued to live at home in Greenwood
The next few blog posts will follow the RMR through the fall of 1861. But first, I will post here a letter from the brothers' uncle, Thomas Melville Anderson (1813-1871), their mother’s brother. Uncle Tommie was in the Florida 2nd Infantry; he was fairly old for a soldier, around 47, so he didn't stay in the army for the duration. Young Tommie mentioned seeing him  several times near Yorktown, Va., up through April, 1862 - but not after that.

Chimbarazo Hill, Richmond. Photo by Bernard Fisher, 2009.

Sept 17th 1861 ~ James B. Griffin is Back in Camp

Terrible storm on the Potomac.
~ Lightning darting like fiery serpents ~

After the miseries of Broad Run camp near Brentsville, the new encampments closer to the Potomac were pleasant places for the Hampton Legion Cavalry, with pretty scenery and with good water. First they set up at Bacon Race Church; but the order soon came to move to Wolf Run on the Occoquan River, leaving Bacon Race to be used as a hospital. At the new Wolf Run camp, Lt. Col. James B. Griffin soon sat down to write home to Leila - but his letter-writing was cut short by a storm. 

Photo by Fir0002 on Wikimedia Commons

The beginning of Griffin's letter dealt with mundane news. From A Gentleman and an Officer, page 119-123:

Head Qrs Hampton Legion       
Camp Griffin Set 17th 1861
My Darling Wife
I received yesterday a letter from you dated the 8th which was eight days on the road. And I hadnt heard a word from you in the mean time. … I was 

Mid September 1861 ~ Butler's Raid, Griffin; Whiting

1861-09-23 Richmond Dispatch ~ Dispatch from Jasper: Butler's Cavalry Expedition (of the 5th) - What the Prisoners Said - Painful Casualty - Forward Movement, &c.
~ Col. Griffin's big shock ~

From: Richmond Dispatch,  Richmond, Virginia,  23 Sep 1861, Page 2. LOC (Detail)



Early Sept 1862 ~ Thomas Jeffers is Back in Camp

Encamped at a very pretty place
~ Feeling as well as he ever did in his life ~

The Hampton Legion was hammered by sickness in the months of August and September, 1861. After recovering at homes and inns in Brentsville, the returning men found their companies had moved from Broad Run into new camps closer to the Potomac. The Hampton Legion set up “Camp Griffin,” first at Bacon Race Church, then relocated by a few miles to Wolf Run on Occoquan River, a Potomac tributary in Prince William County, Virginia. Both armies, Union and Confederate, were building batteries along the Potomac as fast as they could.

Wolf Run Shoals on the Occoquan River, photo by Peter2212 on Wikimedia.

Newly arrived and pleased with this area, Thomas Jeffers wrote home on September 5th (the very same day Major Butler and his detachment were out hunting for Yankees to fight).

Sept 5th 1861 ~ Butler's Skirmishing and Expeditionary Party

1861-09-19 Yorkville Enquirer ~ More details on Major Butler's skirmish of Sept. 5th
~ The famous and gallant Hampton Legion ~
From: Yorkville Enquirer, York, South Carolina, 19 Sep 1861, Page 1. LOC

We have news from Manassas of active skirmishing and expeditionary parties on the extreme right of our lines; which position is occupied by the famous and gallant Hampton Legion. A few days ago, as we learn, a detachment of one hundred of the cavalry of the Legion, under the command of Major M. C. Butler - as brave and chivalric a spirit as ever breathed, even in the State of South Carolina - made a brilliant dash in the immediate vicinity of the enemy's lines. They went within three miles and a half of Alexandria, on the turnpike leading from Accotink to that place, running the Federal pickets from two posts - one at Gibbs' barn and the other at the forks of the road, where it branches off to Mount Vernon, two miles distant. The expedition took three prisoners, eight muskets, a lot of camp equipage, two Jersey wagons and four horses. After this sharp day’s work of the detachment, it was the next morning in its camp at Bacon's Race Church as early as eleven o'clock. - Richmond Examiner

Sept 5th 1861 ~ Hampton Legion Cavalry in First Skirmish

Hampton Legion Scouts encounter Yankee pickets.
~ First skirmish with the Hessians. ~

Looking for any kind of clues about Thomas Jeffers' experiences in the growing conflict in Virginia, I found several newspaper articles about the Hampton Legion Cavalry's search for Yankees to fight. Tommie Jeffers was not in this particular detachment led by Major Butler on the 5th of September - but this article describes the work that lay ahead for Thomas and the whole Hampton Legion Cavalry.

From: The Charleston Daily Courier, Charleston, South Carolina, 14 Sep 1861, Page 1. LOC. (Detail)



Early Sept 1861 ~ Sitting Tight on the Occoquan

Blockading the Potomac - Exchanging picket fire
But why not take Washington?
~ Maybe the Hampton Legion can do something ~

Occoquan Bay NWR (Wikimedia pic by Bill Wallen USFWS) 

The newspapers noticed that the military forces were moving from Manassas Junction into the Potomac area, and had advice to give.

From: Spartan, Spartanburg, South Carolina, 19 Sep 1861, Page 1 (detail). LOC


August 13th 1861 ~ Rebels Building Batteries on the Potomac

Fortifying, blocking navigation, and gathering all kinds of boats
~ Their batteries ought to be destroyed at once ~

After First Manassas, the attention of the Confederate forces in northern Virginia (at that time calling themselves "The Army of the Potomac" - before a later name change) refocused on the natural boundary between the armies, the Potomac River. Union and Confederate forces were building batteries along the banks of the Potomac and its tributaries. This article in the Philadelphia Inquirer insisted the Rebels' fortifications ought to be destroyed at once, instantly. 

From: The Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 13 Aug 1861, Page 1. LOC (detail)


August 1861 ~ No News from Virginia

Measles Attack
~ Tampering with the mails ~

In spite of celebrating “a great victory,” South Carolinians were on edge after the Battle of First Manassas: many families lost young men in the battle; rumors of more fighting unnerved everyone; and newspapers told of rampant diseases in the camps. For nearly two weeks the Jeffers family did not hear from Thomas. What to do?

From the next four letters, I will pick out passages to tell this story. I will return to these same letters in the future to begin threads of other stories (scouting on the Potomac, unreliable mail service, and the delightful Miss Fannie Smith), but for now I will follow the measles thread. The family had to learn to let Tommie grow up and take care of himself.

Brentsville, Va., near the Broad Run - photo posted on Google Maps

Jul-Aug 1861 ~ Many of Our Men Were Down Sick

From the Beaufort Troop alone there were a great many

Measles, typhoid fever, pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria - those were the enemies that didn’t care about politics or “sides.” Those enemies rolled through the armies of both sides. 

Diseases hit the Hampton Legion hard in the weeks after First Manassas. The cavalry stayed near the battlefield at Camp Johnson (named in honor of Lt. Colonel Johnson who had been killed in the battle). Encamped by the creek  Broad Run, which Major James B. Griffin described as “a large muddy ugly stream,” many of the men fell sick. 

Stream near Bull Run after the battle, July 1861. LOC.

Jul-Aug 1861 ~ The Worst Enemy

Infectious Diseases Spread Like Wild Fire

The greatest killer in the Civil War was disease - estimates put it at 400,000 out of 700,000 soldier deaths. All during the early summer of 1861, newspapers north and south gave proud accounts of the growing strength of regiments and arms, and only sometimes mentioned that measles, typhoid, and dysentery were flaring up in the camps. 

Illustration used by the United States Sanitary Commission during the war.
"Our Heroines"

July 28th 1861 ~ What Thomas Saw

Tommie on the Battle of First Manassas:
~ Miscalculations, batteries, baggage, and Mrs. Henry's house. ~

Thomas Jeffers wrote to his father on 1861-07-28, describing the aftermath of the battle at Manassas (see previous post). The last post also explored the sight that shocked the nation so profoundly - bodies still unburied days afterward. That battle, like most, has been described to kingdom come. But since I like to see what Tom saw, I took another look at some of the things he wrote about:
Thomas to his father:
Manassas Junction Va, July 28th 1861
I went on yesterday to visit the Battle Field about four miles from this place. The sight was terrible in the extreme, numbers of putrefied Men and Horses heaped together, having remained on the field since Sunday, the day of the battle, the number being so great they had not been able to bury them all. Numberless rumors and reports are circulated concerning the Battle, and even here at the scene of action it is really difficult to get at the truth. I have taken a great deal of pains to learn as far as possible a correct statement of facts. The number engaged on the side of the enemy was between forty and fifty thousand (with a reserve of about the same number), and on our side some fifteen thousand. 
Wikipedia gives very different figures (no doubt much more accurate than Tommie’s findings): 18,000 engaged on the Union side, with another 36,000 reserved; on the Confederate side, 18,000 engaged with 15,000 reserved.

First Battle of Bull Run, chromolithograph by Kurz and Allison, LOC.

July 28th 1861 ~ After the Battle

Heart-rending Sights at Manassas

Confederate dead at Bull Run. Retrieved from LOC.

When the Hampton Legion Cavalry reached Manassas Junction, the battle (21 July 1861) was over - but the fog of rumors had not lifted. The men were anxious to learn the truth - accountings of the number of dead, wounded, and captured varied wildly.

In letters written by soldiers on both sides, the worried folks at home were cautioned against believing everything they read in the newspapers. On July 24th Major Griffin wrote to his wife Leila “My Darling, let me advise you not to believe any statement you may hear until it is fully confirmed. For it really seems that the truth is never published at first, and sometimes not at all.” (A Gentleman and an Officer, page 107)

July 22nd 1861 ~ Leaving Ashland

Going to the Seat of War
~ Where Ever Duty Calls ~

After two weeks of sword drill at Camp Ashland, the Hampton Legion Cavalry received “marching orders” to report to General Beauregard at Manassas

General P. G. T. Beauregard’s headquarters at Manassas, VA,
during the 1st Battle of Bull Run (21 July, 1861). LOC.

Tommie Jeffers' fellow cavalry-member Prioleau Henderson was still feeling invincible and full of beans. From the memories of Prioleau's horse, in Autobiography of Arab, page 17-18: 
It was here at old Ashland we got the first news of fighting going on at the front. We soon received orders to March to Manassas. What a day that was we started. Raining in torrents, and although it was July, the rain was like ice. We passed through a little sort of village, called Goldensville, and a family of Taylors - I think they were originally from South Carolina - brought out something in water buckets for the men. I don’t know exactly what it was, but I am certain it was not water. it seemed to help the feelings of the men a great deal, for to my great surprise, nearly every one was singing and laughing.
When the order came, the more solemn Major James B. Griffin hurriedly wrote to Leila that they

July 1861 ~ Camp Ashland

Drilling in the Sword Exercise
~ Strictly According to Army Regulations ~

The Beaufort District Troop of the Hampton Legion Cavalry left Richmond on July 10th, 1861, bound for Ashland, Virginia. The Richmond Enquirer admired their martial bearing as they left Richmond.

Wade Hampton statue, photo from history.com.

Richmond EnquirerRichmondVirginia, 11 Jul 1861, Thu  •  Page 3. LOC.
Camp Ashland, a former racetrack, had been designated a training camp for Confederate cavalry. West Point officers who had switched allegiance from the US army to the Confederate were on hand to drill the cavalries at the spot so well-suited for cavalry drills.

July 1861 ~ Who Were These People?

Who Belonged to the Hampton Legion?
~ See Paragraph 3 ~

Richmond Dispatch, Richmond, VA, 08 Jul 1861, Mon, Page 1. LOC.

[Misspellings left uncorrected]

July 8th 1861 ~ Dress Parade!

Jefferson Davis Reviews the Hampton Legion Cavalry
~ They Presented an Imposing Appearance ~

When the Hampton Legion Cavalry reached Richmond, Private Thomas Jeffers was a little put off by the lack of “provision made by the Confederate States for its Troops.” Camp Manning’s scarcity of “necessary equipments...and food for both man and beast” must have been a galling contrast to the adulation and food showered on the Beaufort District Troop in Charleston, Columbia, Raleigh, and Petersburg

But neither Tommie nor his friends worried about this bad omen - because they had sources of pride. Tommie wrote to his father about his satisfaction in belonging to the Hampton Legion Cavalry; in the 13th July letter, he described a dress parade (their second since arriving) at Richmond's Camp Manning on July  8th, 1861:
All the Cavalry Companies belonging to the Legion were reviewed by President Davis a few days before leaving Richmond, and presented quite an imposing appearance. I think Col Hampton should be proud of his Legion for it is no doubt composed of the best body of men that has left our state.
The Richmond Dispatch also described this dress parade. Richmond Dispatch 1861-07-12, page 2:

(Article uses the name "Camp Chimborazo," another name used for Camp Manning. See transcription below.)

July 1861 ~ The Rocketts in Richmond

How are the Accommodations at Camp Manning?
~ Depends on Who You Are ~

On July 3rd, 1861, the Beaufort District Troop, a cavalry company attached to the Hampton Legion, marched from Petersburg to Richmond, where they spent about a week at Camp Manning, a.k.a. Rocketts Old Field. Prioleau Henderson enjoyed being cheered by Richmond’s citizens as the troop rode through the city:

From Autobiography of Arab, page 14: 
We passed through the principal streets and were greeted and cheered by every one. We then went into camp at a place called "The Rocketts," where we found the infantry and artillery of the Legion encamped.

 Rocketts Landing near Richmond, (image c 1865). LOC

July 1861 ~ Hampton Legion Assembles in Richmond

Rendezvous at Camp Manning

From PetersburgVirginia, the destination for all the Hampton Legion companies was Camp Manning, set up on the eastern outskirts of Richmond, near Chimborazo Hill. Here they gathered, prepared to move to the field, and speculated which Union generals they deemed worthy to meet the Legion in battle. 

1861-07-04 Yorkville Enquirer, York, SC. LOC.